Expeller pressed canola oil Canada

Expeller Pressed Canola Oil. Expeller Pressed Canola Oil is commonly used in food manufacturing and in restaurants. It has a light, neutral flavor, light texture and high heat tolerance which makes it ideal for sautéing, baking and frying. It is a heart-heathy oil, high in omega-3 fatty acids and low in saturated, with no trans fats and. The oil is extracted through mechanical means only. Seed is pressed slowly to limit friction and avoid elevating temperatures. Canola oil produced by these methods has a stronger colour, taste and odour and similar to the expeller press, the meal contains a high oil content Canola oil is known for its low concentration of saturated fat and has a high proportion of monounsaturated fat. Most Canadian companies use the same method to process canola seed. According to the Canola Council of Canada, expeller pressed canola oil can be baked, cooked, and fried with negligible rise in trans fats According to the Canola Council of Canada, expeller pressed canola oil can be baked, cooked, and fried with negligible rise in trans fats. This makes expeller pressed canola oil a heart-healthy option to many other oils. Related Articles. Substitutes for Groundnut Oil in Cooking Expeller-Pressed Canola Oil is commonly used in food manufacturing and in restaurants. It is ideal for those in the natural and health food sector, because it is GMO Free. It has a light, neutral flavor, light texture and high heat tolerance which makes it ideal for sautéing, baking and frying. It is a heart-heathy oil, high in omega-3 fatty.

Expeller-Pressed Canola Oil Centra Food

  1. 100% Pure Non-GMO Canola Oil - Expeller Pressed is made from the seeds of the Canola plant, commonly grown in Canada and the Western US. These Canola seeds are GMO free. The seeds are crushed and pressed to extract the oil, which is then refined. This oil is obtained using only physical means, and no solvents are used to aid in the process
  2. Canola Oil. 32 FL. OZ. With a medium-high smoke point our 100% expeller pressed canola oil is perfect for frying, sautéing and baking. UPC 8-15369-01204-1
  3. These are expeller pressed oils that go through a double pressing and don't involve the use of chemical solvents. However, even most higher quality expeller pressed canola still goes through an extensive refining process to produce an edible oil. We scoured the internet looking for cold pressed and unrefined canola and it is very rare
  4. At Pleasant Valley Oil Mills, We know that. 100% Pure and All Natural is Better. Proud to provide the healthy and finest oils in the world, made with love in our hearts, so they are good for yours. Pleasant Valley's cold-pressed canola oil exclusively provides the following superior nutritional benefits
  5. Now, we know what you're thinking - maybe if Canola oil is organic and expeller pressed, then we're safe to eat that kind. Wrong. Scientists are now warning against long-term consumption of Canola Oil as it could worsen symptoms of dementia and cause weight gain. It causes plaques in the brain that lead to degenerative diseases in animals
  6. This expeller-pressed canola oil is great for both baking and frying, especially if you need it in bulk quantities. Best organic canola oil: La Tourangelle Organic Canola Oil La Tourangelle takes an artisanal approach to its canola oil: this one-liter tin is made for small batches, not huge dinners

Fork & Leaf Non-GMO Expeller Pressed Canola Oil is one of the most versatile, healthy oils to use in your kitchen. It has a light flavor and is perfect for everyday cooking. You'll want to store in a cool, dark place to preserve the quality of the oil. When you've used all of your Fork & Leaf Canola Oil, please recycle the bottle. Smoke. Double Expeller Pressed Good Source of Omega 3 & 6 Double Expeller-Pressed (mechanical extraction), Non-GMO (*Verified by the Non-GMO Project) Pure Canola Oil. No chemicals used in the extraction process of the oil. Fully refined. No Additives. High in Omega-3 and Omega-6. No Trans-fat. Cholesterol free 365 Canola Oil. USDA certified; Expeller pressed; 365 canola oil is your perfect everyday companion for the kitchen. The convenient plastic bottle is easy to use and the expeller-pressed method enabled the oil to keep all its natural healthy ingredients. You can use it for frying and other cooking needs, such as baking desserts or sautéing

Processing canola seed into oil and meal in Canad

  1. The Spectrum Naturals Organic Canola Oil (view at Amazon) is an excellent all-around choice. It's expeller-pressed, and no chemicals or other ingredients are introduced during the refining process. If you're looking for a spray, go with La Tourangelle Organic Canola Oil Spray (view at Amazon), which is free of chemicals, alcohol, and aerosol
  2. Simple Truth® Organic. Expeller Pressed Canola Oil -- 25.5 fl oz. SKU #: 011110886750. Shipping Weight: 1.64 lb. Servings: 50. Our price: $5.91. ★★★★★ ★★★★★. 4.8 out of 5 stars. Read reviews for Simple Truth® Organic Expeller Pressed Canola Oil -- 25.5 fl oz
  3. Refined, Bleached and Deodorized Canola Oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the seed of the species Brassica napus or Brassica campestris and is highly refined. It is 93% saturated-fat free and contains no additives. It is an exceptional oil for general kitchen needs, and is ideal for use in applications such as sauces, general cooking, light duty frying, and salad oil
  4. Step 3. Canola Oil Pressing. There are mainly two methods for extracting Canola oil, one is Mechanical Press and second is Solvent Extraction. In Mechanical Press, Canola oilseeds are pressed in a series of Screw Presses / Expellers. This process uses no chemical and leaves about 5-7% oil in the residual Cake/Meal

Product Title Native Harvest Expeller Pressed Non-GMO Canola Oil, Average rating: 4.7 out of 5 stars, based on 7 reviews 7 ratings Current Price $16.59 $ 16 . 59 - $26.99 $ 26 . 9 Cold-pressed and expeller-pressed canola oil are also produced on a more limited basis. About 44% of a seed is oil, with the remainder as a canola meal used for animal feed. About 23 kg (51 lb) of canola seed makes 10 L (2.64 US gal) of canola oil. Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods We use canola oil in many of our Prepared Foods recipes because it is very versatile. Canola is fairly heat stable, so it is suitable for all types of cooking, and it has a neutral flavor, making it suitable for all kinds of dishes. We only use non-GMO, expeller pressed canola oil in all of our in-house Prepared Foods

The canola plant — a member of the Brassica family, which includes broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower — is a domesticated rapeseed-oil plant that has been bred to improve its taste and nutritional content. It is bright and yellow-flowering in the field and is grown primarily in Western Canada Whether using cold-pressed canola oil provides some small additional benefit is not clear. In general, variety is a good strategy in nutrition, and thus consuming a variety of oils is desirable, for example using extra virgin oil when the special flavor is desired and canola oil or soybean oil for other uses Energrow Inc - Energrow. Energrow's oilseed pressing system helps farmers CRUSH their feed costs. The easy way to make fresh, home-grown, high-quality meal + expeller-pressed oil, right on the farm. The fully automated, turnkey CRUSH-Pro is easy to set up and run 24/7. Cows love the meal, and we'll buy back the oil

Rapeseed oil is the traditional cooking oil of India and southern China, but the kind we use was bred in Canada to contain less erucic acid, a toxic fatty acid, than other varieties. This Canadian oil became known as canola oil. I use canola oil in moderation, when I want a neutral-tasting oil, but I always look for organic, expeller-pressed. 100% Pure Organic Canola Oil - Expeller Pressed. $ 50.93 /Plastic Jug. Sold By : Babaash USA. Item # POCO-205077727 SKU # 205077727 Price per unit $ 3.22/Kg or $ 50.93/Unit Quantity per Pack 17.4 Litres / 15.8 Kg / 35 lb Order: Minimum Qty 60 Units of 15.8 Kg = 1,044 L Order: Minimum Amt US $ 3,055.80 Brand Amsonic Country of Origin USA, Canada Certified Non GMO expeller cold press extra virgin canola oil. Grown in Saskatchewan, Canada, the world's ideal climate for canola. A good source of Vitamin E, an antioxidant and omega-3. The rich amber color and natural nutty flavor of North Prairie Gold enhances whatever you're cooking, regardless of the season Personalized health review for 365 Everyday Value Organic Canola Oil, Organic, Expeller Pressed: 120 calories, nutrition grade (C plus), problematic ingredients, and more. Learn the good & bad for 250,000+ products Cold Expeller Pressed Non-GMO oils for culinary innovation. Crafted from non gmo seeds grown on a 4th generation family farm in Ontario, Canada. Heritage and passion create a signature extra virgin oil, a true field to fork experience. Cold pressed fresh every day to lock in nature's unique flavors, colors and aroma

expeller pressed canola oil canad

Anita's Health Blog: Canola is the new margarine

The crops used to make the oils are sourced from a family of farms across North America, with our soybeans grown in the U.S. and our canola grown in Canada. The oils are expeller-pressed , a process that draws on the artisan method of delicately extracting the oil through physical pressing Mountainview's cold pressed unrefined canola (virgin) oil quality shows in the , dark colour, and magnificent taste! The nutty flavour makes it perfect for bread dips, salad dressings, marinades, sauces and baking, fantastic smoke point of 420 degrees makes it more than suitable for frying! Produced in Western Canada, from #1 Canola seed. Scopolamine was also detected in another expeller pressed canola oil sample from this brand, however it was not detected in other types of canola oil samples tested. As seen in Table 3, 2 samples of seasoned oil samples from the same brand with the same best before date and 2 samples of the same stir-fry oil with a different lot numbers had.

Spectrum Essentials Organic Canola Oil 16 fl oz LiquidRenee’s Ravishing Recipes And Health Facts: Daiya Cheese

Fat (oil) (typical), expeller pressed, % by mass 10 minimum - Moisture, % by mass 12 maximum 12 maximum Crude Fibre, % by mass 12 maximum 12 maximum Sand and/or silica, % by mass - 1 maximum 1COPA (Canadian Oilseed Processors Association, 2019) Canola meal sold directly to the United States goes primarily to the top dairy producing states ORGANIC CANOLA OIL, expeller pressed. SKU: O10-4. Botanical Name: Brassica napus. Certified Organic. Origin: Netherlands / USA. Production: Canola oil is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed, which is a bright yellow-flowering member of the mustard and cabbage family. Expeller pressed canola oil is oil that is physically squeezed out of the. The cold pressed canola oil is still high in omega 6 fatty acids and will have many of the associated risks related to canola oil. Best Canola Oil Substitutes. Even though cold-pressed canola oil may have some health benefits, there are many better oils to use in cooking Canola oil processing plant is a small scale plant to extract canola oil by pressing method. By using the canola oil processing equipment, the rapeseeds are cleaned, roasted, screw pressed and refined. The rapeseed oil press machine adopted has the functions of automatic barrel heating, pressing and oil filtering

1. Introduction. Canola (Brassica napus) is a major annual field crop grown in North America, with >5.0 million ha in production annually in Canada [].Canola meal (CM), the protein rich by-product generated following oil extraction from canola seeds, has shown promise in feeding applications in monogastric species when applied at a low inclusion rate [] Non GMO Expeller Pressed Canola Oil is produced from crop where there are no commercial values that have been genetically modified (GM) via recombinant DNA. Country of Origin: Canada. Nutritional Profile: The following represents typical nutritional information for the product above. To our best knowledge, this information is true and accurate

What Is Expeller Pressed Canola Oil? Our Everyday Lif

Buy Non-GMO Expeller-Pressed Canola Oil in Bulk Centra Food

Canola oil is made from a relative of rapeseed that is primarily grown in Canada. No egregious environmental issues are associated with cold pressed or expeller pressed canola oil, especially if it's organic. However, non-cold or expeller pressed canola requires use of the chemical hexane,. Alibaba.com offers 1,172 expeller pressed canola products. A wide variety of expeller pressed canola options are available to you, such as local service location, processing type, and cultivation type I looked on the Spectrum website and the Organic canola oil says 100% mechanically (expeller) pressed naturally refined organic canola oil. Why does it need to be refined if it's expeller pressed? According to the Spectrum website they don't use chemicals to refine their product, so they must be subjecting it to very high heat

Omega-9™ expeller-pressed canola oil represents the next generation of naturally stable cooking oils which allow food manufacturers to deliver healthier foods without compromising taste or performance. Viterra is very pleased to be the first canola processing plant in North America to receive this special certification Canola Oil Dangers1 includes assertions about the allegedly deleterious effects of genetically modified (GM) plants, while Canola Oil Proven to Destroy Your Body and Mind2 extrapolates heavily from a single mouse study.3 For decades, canola has been criticized via viral e-mails and blog posts because the oil of its parent plant—rapeseed.

Plant-Based Santa Fe Burritos | Daiya Foods, Deliciously

According to the Mayo Clinic, flaxseed oil, pressed from flaxseeds, is high in vitamin E and is a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid, a heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid. But since it has a very. Solvent-extracted rapeseed meal should not contain more than 2-3% oil. Expeller or cold-extracted rapeseed meal. Expeller rapeseed meal results from the mechanical extraction of seeds previously conditioned by a heat treatment. It is also called rapeseed press-cake, canola press-cake or double-pressed canola (Newkirk, 2009) As is most cooking oil, canola is fully refined, bleached and deodorized to produce a neutral oil for North American tastes. In contrast, this caiziyou from Chongqing is made from low-erucic-acid, non-GMO seeds and is expeller pressed instead of chemically processed

100% Pure Non-GMO Canola Oil - Expeller Presse

Personalized health review for Sprouts Natural Expeller Pressed Canola Oil: 120 calories, nutrition grade (C plus), problematic ingredients, and more. Learn the good & bad for 250,000+ products An expeller is a big screw that is tightened until it crushes the nut/seed and causes the oil to run. This method provides yields of only 65-70% of the oil. Many companies then try to extract the rest of the oil using the chemical solvent. Mechanical pressing may create high temperatures, especially when squeezing hard nuts To see if we could tell these types of oil apart, we bought a bottle of Spectrum's organic expeller-pressed canola oil ($9.99 for 32 ounces) and Wesson canola oil ($3.50 for the same quantity) and used the oils to make stir-fried beef and simple lemon vinaigrette Australian Gold Canola Oil is expeller pressed. This is a natural extraction process which means that the oil is physically or mechanically squeezed out of canola seed, instead of using chemical extraction methods like solvents. This means that our product is healthier as it is naturally extracted Use a minimal amount of oil, like canola or olive oil, or spray oil. lightenuplancaster.org Utilice una cantidad mínima d e aceite c omo aceite de maíz , aceite d e oliva o aceite pa ra cocinar en spray

Canola Oil - Cadi

A wide variety of canola oil presser options are available to you, such as olive oil, peanut oil, and palm oil. You can also choose from canada canola oil presser, as well as from energy saving, multifunctional, and automatic canola oil presser, and whether canola oil presser is hotels, food & beverage factory, or manufacturing plant Spectrum Naturals Canola Oil is the ideal cross-cultural companion to your kitchen for its neutral flavor, heat tolerance and rich stores of monounsaturated fat. Spectrum has been making expeller-pressed canola oil for over 18 years, and today it's still the right oil to choose--whether you're making sizzling kung pao, saucy enchiladas or a. Canola oil originated from Canada, its design and chemical structure was first conceptualized in Alberta, Canada. Canola oil's name is derived from the term Canadian oil because it's much lower in erucic acid compared to the untreated rapeseed plant. Naturally, there's no such thing as a canola plant that's used to make canola oil Peanut oil is higher in saturated fat, with 18 percent, making it slightly less healthy than canola oil, but it still contains 48 percent monounsaturated fat and 34 percent polyunsaturated fat.In contrast to the 400 degree F smoking point of canola oil, peanut oil has a higher smoke point of 450 degrees F. Canola is fine for baking, sauces and sautéing, but peanut oil may be preferable for. Canola oil is a newly created oil, invented in the 1970s as a low euric-acid version of the otherwise not-really-edible rapeseed oil. In 1998, through the marvels of genetic-engineering, the now ubiquitous variety of rapeseed (which makes up roughly 87% of all rapeseed grown in the U.S. and Canada) was created

Canola has been one of the world's most popular oilseed crops over the past 40 years. Today, after palm and soybean oil, canola oil is the third largest vegetable oil by amount. The use of canola oil in the meal has increased in the US and Canada for the past few decades. History of Organic Canola Oil Canola (Brassica napus) is a major annual field crop grown in North America, with >5.0 million ha in production annually in Canada . Canola meal (CM), the protein rich by-product generated following oil extraction from canola seeds, has shown promise in feeding applications in monogastric species when applied at a low inclusion rate Canola (Brassica napus) is a major annual field crop grown in North America, with >5.0 million ha in production annually in Canada [1]. Canola meal (CM), the protein rich by-product generated following oil extraction from canola seeds, has shown promise in feeding applications in monogastric species when applied at a low inclusion rate [2] The resulting crude canola oil is filtered and distilled to lighten the colour and remove odours and remaining meal particles before being packaged and sold as cooking oil. Expeller press and cold pressed canola oils are processed without the use of heat or hexane and usually have a stronger colour, taste and odour Sunora Foods Inc. is a Calgary, Alberta, Canada based food oil entity trading and supplying canola oil, corn oil, soybean oil, olive oil and specialty oils to markets located in Canada, the United States and Internationally. Sunora has been active since 1990, and operates under the names Sun

What is Canola Oil? Top Reasons Why It's Best Avoide

Expeller Pressed LifeOiL Non-GMO Canola Oil, 33.8 Fluid Ounce (2 Pack) Out of Stock. Read more. LifeOiL Non-GMO Corn Oil, 33.8 Fluid Ounce (2 Pack) Add to cart. LifeOiL Non-GMO Vegetable Oil, 33.8 Fluid Ounce (2 Pack) LifeOiL is now available for healthier frying, baking, sautéing and salads. Our oils are all natural, with no chemical. ️ Our oil is 100% pure, non-GMO expeller-pressed camelina oil - no solvents and zero additives. ️ Highly sustainable source of Omega 3, requiring less water and fertilizers than other common oilseed crops such as flax and canola Expeller-pressed canola meal (EPCM) and cold-pressed canola cake (CPCC) are co-products obtained in small-scale processing plants, after extracting the oil from seed merely using expeller pressing or cold pressing, respectively (Leming and Lember, 2005)

Then, the vast majority of canola oil is produced using the petroleum-derived solvent, hexane, which is used to extract many different types of vegetable oils. You may find expeller-pressed canola oil, but this is still a high-pressure extraction method, resulting in high heat which damages the inherent fatty acids in the seeds Canola oil from the rape seed, referred to as the Canadian oil because Canada is mainly responsible for it being marketed in the USA The Canadian government and industry paid our Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA). $50 million dollars to have canola oil placed on the (GRAS) List Generally Recognized As Safe of expeller pressed pure canola oil from the same brand, 2 samples were seasoned oil from the same brand with the same best before date, and 2 samples were samples of the same stir-fry oil with a different lot number. The highest level (55.8 ppb) of scopolamine was detected in 1 sample of pure canola oil. Table 2 Pastorelli's Canola Oil is sourced from from Canada to produce a pleasant, versatile oil, suitable for a variety of recipes. A healthy alternative to other oils, without compromising flavor or performance Veggie Tots ® Broccoli & Sweet Potato: Sweet Potatoes, Broccoli, White Beans, Non-GMO Expeller Pressed Canola Oil, Dehydrated Potato Flakes, Water, Corn Starch, Garbanzo Bean Flour, Pure Cane Sugar, Sea Salt, Tapioca Starch, Xanthan Gum, Contains less than 2% of: Locust Bean Gum, Rice Flour, Garlic, Tapioca Dextrin

Pleasant Valley Oil Mills - Pure and All Natural is Bette

Canex is expeller-pressed canola meal made fresh on your farm. You make it from your own canola using your Energrow System. Energrow Oilseed Pressing Systems add value to your crops by extracting oil and producing a freshly pelletized feed directly on your farm. Reduce your feed costs and take control of your cash flow Products: It's best to look for cold pressed and centrifuge extracted. Be cautious of expeller pressed because too much heat may have been added in processing which will affect the stability of the oil refined canola oil, hemp seed oil, walnut oil, unrefined canola oil, flaxseed oil This type of oil is expelled using the same method as Expeller Pressed Canola Oil, with the difference being that the seeds used for extracting oil are from non-GM canola. Organic Canola Oil Organic Canola Oil is the highest quality canola oil and is produced by expeller pressing methods without any chemicals involved. Expeller Pressed Canola Oil Clear Valley® High Oleic Canola Oil. Our high oleic canola oils provide high stability for our customers through longer shelf life, a clean flavor, low levels of saturated fat, and zero grams of trans fat per serving. (14 g serving size) Product offerings: Clear Valley® High Oleic Canola Oil; Odyssey™ 90 and 95 High Stability Canola Oil

White Bread Done Right — Dave's Killer Bread | Organic

The most popular TOXIC food ingredient in the United

Health Canada notes that despite the similar proteins in the products, mustard-allergic people probably aren't at risk of reaction from foods containing canola oil because the highly refined product usually doesn't have a significant amount of the potentially allergenic proteins. The agency notes, however, that cold-pressed canola oil is. Organic Soybean Oil. Expeller Pressed. Trans-Fat-Free. Cholesterol-Free. Non-GMO. Contains Omega-3's. Fully Refined. Well balanced, low in saturated fats, and high in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Great for medium heat applications like light-frying, sautéing, and salad dressings Canola is an edible variety of rapeseed with a low percentage of erucic acid and low levels of glucosinolates. It was developed by Canadian plant breeders in the 1970s. The word canola was coined from Canada and from oleo (oil). According to the Canola Council of Canada, the term is no longer a trademark

Veggie Fries® Varieties | Farmwise Foods

Ranking the best canola oil of 2021 - BodyNutritio

Canola oil, developed in Canada in the 1970s from a strain of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, and introduced into the United States in 1985. Consumers worried about the effects of refining can always choose expeller pressed or cold-pressed canola oil. And yes, there are GM forms of canola, as of many plants, but canola was originally. AdvantOleum™ Canola is high in Omega-3, a beneficial fatty acid that is not naturally produced by the human body, but is essential to it. Cold-pressed canola oil has approximately 28% more sterols than traditional expeller-pressed oils; Canola oil contains more polyunsaturated fats than olive and sunflower oil Expeller pressed canola oil, pasteurized whole eggs, filtered water, honey, distilled white vinegar, sea salt, mustard (distilled vinegar, water, mustard seed, salt), lemon juice concentrate. CONTAINS: EGGS GLUTEN FREE No hydrogenated fat or preservatives used

Strawberry Cream Cheeze Style Spread - Daiya FoodsVeggie Tots® | Farmwise Foods

Non-GMO Canola Oil - Fork & Lea

Other expeller-pressed oils, such as canola, incur more heat during the pressing stage and can be poured unheated over vegetables and meats or used in frying, sauteing or baking. Take care to keep cold-pressed and other expeller-pressed oils sealed in airtight containers, away from heat and sunlight, to protect their flavor and nutritional value Canola Oil. Scientific Names: B. napus L. and Brassica rapa L. (formerly B. campestris L.) [Fam. Cruciferae] Forms: Organic canola oil expeller-pressed in the absence of light, heat and oxygen. Traditional Usage: - Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency - Heart Health Maintenance - High Cholesterol - Nutritive Overview:. The Canadian government subsidizes most of rapeseed planting and harvesting. Those plants are cheap, easy to grow and a natural insect resistant, and Canola oil is cheaper and easier to use for processed foods than more expensive, healthier cold pressed oils such as olive oil. Because Canola oil is so cheap, it is now widely used in the food. In fact, canola oil is currently the third most consumed oil in the world! This canola oil is an excellent multi-purpose ingredient for any establishment, and this 35 lb. container will keep your restaurant or cafe in good supply. Canola oil is crushed, extracted, and refined from harvested canola seeds. What makes it so popular among cooking. The United States is the largest importer of canola oil and meal from Canada. Canola meal is also exported to Vietnam, Thailand and Mexico. The remaining 55 percent of canola seed is directly exported to countries such as Japan, China and Mexico for processing by local crushers in their own facilities

Phone: 780-875-5554 Fax: 780-875-3753 Toll Free: 1-800-661-9420 www.adm.com # of Employees: 26 to 100 President: Patricia Woertz Manager: Tim Cassidy Production: Josh Melby Products: Crude Canola Oil, Refined Canola Oil, Canola Meal Pellets, Soy Meal Pellets, Canola Meal, Ethanol, Biodiese Expeller pressing canola seed is similar to conventional processing of canola meal, except that the last step, solvent-extraction, is not carried out. If seed is expeller-pressed rather than solvent-extracted, oil remains in the cake increasing its feed energy value It found that processing methods greatly influenced the frying life of Canola oil, with MSM Milling's Expeller Pressed Oil outperforming oil that was processed using other techniques. The research compared the performance of the oils by frying potato chips for 36 to 48 cycles, until the limit of TPM (Total Polar Materials) was reached