Normal aortic valve velocity

[Normal values of valvular flow velocities determined by

  1. Mean VTI values of left and right ventricular outflow tract and mitral valvular flow were similar (16 +/- 3, 15 +/- 3 and 15 +/- 3 cm, respectively) with an acceptable correlation (r = 0.76-0.83). VTI of tricuspid valvular flow was clearly lower than the rest (10 +/- 3 cm; p < 0.001)
  2. Severity of Aortic Stenosis A normal sized aorta has a valve area of approximately 3.0cm2 (3.0 centimeters squared) and 4.0cm2. Normal aortic velocity would be greater than 3.0m/sec (3.0 meters per second), while a normal mean pressure gradient would be from zero to 20mm Hg (20 millimeters of mercury, which is how blood pressure is measured)
  3. Normal 2D measurements from the apical 4-chamber view; RV medio-lateral end-diastolic dimension ≤ 4.3 cm, RV end-diastolic area ≤ 35.5 cm 2 (89). § At a Nyquist limit of 50-60 cm/s. φ Cut-off values for regurgitant volume and fraction are not well validated. † Steep deceleration is not specific for severe PR
  4. Normal Area 2.5-4.5 cm2 Mild Stenosis 1.0-2.5 cm2 Moderate Stenosis 0.75-1.0 cm2 Severe Stenosis < 0.75 cm2 : Mitral Valve: Aortic Valve Mean Gradient: Normal Area 4.0-6.0 cm2 Mild Stenosis 1.5-2.5 cm
  5. As shown, the severity of aortic stenosis can result from three criteria — valve area (size), aortic velocity and aortic valve gradient. Specific to size, a normal aortic valve area is >2 centimeters squared (cm2). If the valve area is between 1.5 and 2.0 cm2, the stenosis is mild; if the valve area is between 1.0 and 1.5 cm2, the stenosis is.
  6. A normal aortic valve spectral doppler trace has a single rounded systolic (S) wave below the baseline, as bloodflow is away from the transducer. The S wave is enclosed within AV opening (OC) and closing clicks (CC) . The AV wave has a Maximum velocity (V AV) of 80 - 130 cm/sec. The AV velocity-time intergral (VTI) is 15 - 25 c

Echocardiogram Criteria For Severe Aortic Valve Diseas

  1. Dr. Guy Lloyd Echocardiographic assessment of the severity of aortic valve stenosis (AS) usually relies on peak velocity, mean pressure gradient (MPG) and aortic valve area (AVA), which should ideally be concordant. In 20%-30% of patients, these parameters are discordant (usually AVA <1 cm² and MPG <40 mmHg)
  2. The maximum velocity of the flow profile should peak at about 100 cm/sec or less. To measure the LVOT profile with PWD, the sample volume should be placed as close to the aortic valve as possible, but remain subvalvular. The angle should be as parallel as possible with the flow direction. Normal LVOT PWD 1X 2X 3X 4
  3. Doppler Parameters of Prosthetic Aortic Valve Function Normal Suggests Stenosis Peak Velocity < 3 m/s > 4 m/s Mean Gradient < 20 mmhg > 35 mmhg Doppler Velocity Index >= 0.3 < 0.25 Effective Orifice area > 1.2 cm2 < 0.8 cm2 Contour of Jet Triangular Early Peaking Rounded Symmetrical contour Acceleration Time < 80 ms > 100 ms 3.2 24 0.18 150 m

Normal Values - Echopedi

Normal Aortic Valve. As we stated above, aortic stenosis is a tight aortic valve. Every time blood leaves the heart it needs to go through the aortic valve. have echo showing with trileaflet aortic valve moderate to severe aortic stenosis Ao velocity 4.3 m/s peak gradient 75 mmHg mean gradient 48 mmHg AVarea -1.1cm2 mild aortic. Normal Doppler echocardiographic values of aortic valve prosthesis; Valve Size n Peak gradient (mm Hg) Mean gradient (mm Hg) Peak velocity (m/s) Effective orifice area (cm 2) ATS open pivot AP ATS open pivot (bileaflet) 16 6 47.7 ± 12 27 ± 7.3 3.44 ± 0.47 0.61 ± 0.09 19 9 47 ± 12.6 26.2 ± 7.9 3.41 ± 0.43 0.96 ± 0.18 21 15 25.5 ± 6.1 14.

Pulsed wave Doppler estimates of blood flow velocity were made across the mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves in a series of 120 normal fetuses (gestational age 16-36 weeks). In 36 of these the data were obtained in all four sites. The maximum and mean velocities were calculated for each If the tech were to observe that the valve is abnormal, yet the Doppler tracings of the peak aortic valve velocity are close to normal, then something is not adding up, and it's time to figure out what it is and how to fix it. This holds true in every aspect of your echocardiogram examination. Always look at your measurements, both 2D and. Part 1: aortic and pulmonary regurgitation (native valve disease). In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 11 (3), pp. 223-244 Although a significant increase in aortic blood flow velocity was observed at 18-41 weeks' gestation (V max = 48.2 cm/s to 110.3 cm/s (P < 0.001), V mean = 20 cm/s to 47.5 cm/s (P < 0.001) and V min = 7.6 cm/s to 18.6 cm/s (P < 0.001)), there were no significant changes in the pulsatility or resistance indices Jet velocity (m/s)2.0-2.9 3.0 -3.9 ≥ 4.0 Mean gradient (mmHg)< 20 20 -39 ≥ 40 Valve area (cm2)≤ 1.0 Valve area index (cm2/m2

Ultrasound images of the aortic arch showing the position of the Doppler sample volume in the isthmus in longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) views. (c) Examples of Doppler flow velocity waveforms in the aortic isthmus at 20, 30 and 37 gestational weeks illustrating the slight increase in the pulsatility index as gestation progresses Severe stenosis is present when the velocity ratio is 0.25 or less, corresponding to a valve area 25% of normal. To some extent, the velocity ratio is normalized for body size because it reflects the ratio of the actual valve area to the expected valve area in each patient, regardless of body size Normal Dog - 47-70 msec Normal Cat - 39-53 msec Left Ventricular Ejection Time (LVET) - measured from the time of aortic valve opens to time aortic valve closes Normal Dog - 130 - 170 msec Normal Cat - 105-140 msec PEP/LVET - reduces effects of heart rat But adults without symptoms have an excellent prognosis.The simplest measure of the extent of stenosis is the forward velocity across the aortic valve. This velocity is about 1.0 m per sec. in normals and increases to 2.5 to 2.9 m per sec. in mild stenosis,3.0 to 4.0 m per sec. in moderate stenosis, and more than 4.0 m per sec. in severe stenosis

Results 16 156 echocardiograms were analysed, 14 669 of which did not show valvular obstruction (peak jet velocity <2.5 m/s). In the latter group, AVA was 2.6±0.7 cm 2 in 8190 studies with normal valves and 2.3±0.7 cm 2 in 6479 studies with aortic sclerosis (AScl) Aortic stenosis is described as mild, moderate, severe or critical based on these measurements. The velocity of blood flow across the aortic valve, as determined by continuous wave Doppler, is. Prosthetic Aortic Valve Stenosis: Pressure Gradients and Velocity. Remember that often the aortic valve velocity in a prosthetic valve is increased (> 2m/s), therefore velocities <3m/sec are still considered 'normal'. High gradients may be seen with normal functioning valves with normal pulmonic valve velocity < normal aortic valve velocity The left atrium is the most___ chamber in the heart, a reservoir for pulmonary venous return, and a contractile pump that delivers____ of the left ventricular filling

The mean velocity in the aorta varies over the cardiac cycle. During systole the mean velocity rises to a peak, then it falls during diastole. This pattern is repeated with each squeezing pulse of the heart. The highest velocities are found at the exit of the valve during systole Gradient = 4(velocity) 2 mmHg. A normal aortic valve has a gradient of only a few mmHg. A decreased valvular area causes an increased pressure gradient, and these parameters are used to classify.

The term bicuspid aortic valve refers to a spectrum of congenital abnormalities in which the aortic valve has only two cusps instead of the normal three. Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cardiovascular anomaly, with a prevalence of 1%-2% in the general population The antegrade systolic velocity across the narrowed aortic valve, or aortic jet velocity, is measured using continuous-wave (CW) Doppler (CWD) ultrasound. 8-10 Accurate data recording mandates multiple acoustic windows in order to determine the highest velocity (apical and suprasternal or right parasternal most frequently yield the highest. This is because the mitral and aortic valves are adjacent to each other, resulting in both waveforms being recorded simultaneously. However, the aortic waveform within the left ventricle represents the flow exiting the left ventricle before it exits through the aortic valve. This illustrates the normal range for the time-to-peak velocity of. Normal aortic valve: M-mode motion of the valve has a box appearance. M-mode color doppler imaging of the aortic valve . During diastole the free edge of the valve is seen in the middle of the lumen of the aorta as a bisecting line. The valve opens rapidly and moves towards the aortic wall. Mean velocity across aortic valve

Aortic valve normal equine GE LOGIC e 3S-RS | IMV imaging

Normal Values - E-Echocardiograph

Figure 1 shows a normal aortic valve, and Figure 2 depicts echocardiographic changes times the normal velocity or at least 4.0 m per second. 21-23. However, stenosis severity ma Normal aortic valve area is 3-4 sq cm. If it is reduced, but above 1.5 sq cm, it is graded as mild aortic stenosis. 1-1.5 sq cm is graded as moderate and less than 1 sq cm as severe aortic stenosis. According to body surface area, aortic valve area index of more than 0.85 will be mild aortic stenosis and index below 0.6 severe aortic stenosis

Normal Size Of An Aortic Valve (Patient Pictures

The aortic peak systolic velocity should always be recorded from the same acoustic window as the previous exams Average normal aortic valve area is 3 - 4cm² Increasing velocities and pressure gradients are noted with increasing severity of stenosi The aim of this study is to resolve what event in velocity/time curves represents aortic valve closure (AVC) by comparing the timing of AVC visually seen in high frame rate B-mode images with simultaneously recorded apical tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle-tracking-based velocity/time curves from normal subjects Aortic stenosis. The etiology of aortic stenosis (AS) can be confirmed by the visualization of either a bicuspid valve or calcification. The severity of the stenosis can be estimated by measuring high-velocity flow across the valve by Doppler. This can be converted to an estimation of the pressure drop The simplified continuity equation is based on the concept that in native aortic valve stenosis the shape of the velocity curve in the outflow tract and aorta is similar so that the ratio of LVOT to aortic jet VTI is nearly identical to the ratio of the LVOT to aortic jet maximum velocity (V). Aortic valve area indexed to body surface area.

Spectral Doppler: Aortic Valve - University of Toront

The aortic wave Maximum velocity (V DescAo) is 100 - 140 cm/sec. Figure 3: Spectral doppler data acquired for blood flow through the descending aorta. In the upper right, a two dimensional TEE image of the mid esophageal descending aorta LAX view; the blue circle indicates the location of the sample volume in the distal portion of the. 1.5 ± 0.5 (0.5-2.5) 0.9 ± 0.4 (0.1-1.7) Data are expressed as mean ± SD (95% confidence interval). Note that for e´ velocity in subjects aged 16 to 20 years, values overlap with those for subjects aged 21 to 40 years. This is because e´ increases progressively with age in children and adolescents Normal Doppler echo values (peak/mean gradient) for prosthetic aortic valves. Table data adapted from the American Society of Echo Guidelines and Standards. Prosthetic Aortic Valves: Normal Doppler Data Appendix A. Valve Type Size (mm) Peak gradient (mmHg) Mean gradient (mmHg) EOA (cm2 ) ATS: Bileaflet: 19: 47.0 ± 12.6: 25.3 ± 8: 1.1 ± 0.3. Results: For all SAPIEN valve sizes, all SAPIEN XT valve sizes, and all SAPIEN 3 valve sizes, respective mean gradients were 9.4 ± 4.1 mm Hg, 9.5 ± 3.6 mm Hg, and 11.2 ± 4.4 mm Hg; and respective EOAs were 1.70 ± 0.49 cm 2, EOA 1.67 ± 0.46 cm 2, and 1.66 ± 0.38 cm 2.For all three balloon-expandable devices, mean gradient decreased and EOA increased for larger compared to smaller valve sizes The average aortic jet velocity at the peak systole is increased from 83.6 cm/s (base, normal) to 101.8 cm/s and 112.8 cm/s for the RLM1 and RLM2, respectively. As shown above, however, the RLM not only decreases the valve opening area and thus increases the aortic jet strength, but also substantially changes the aortic flow patterns

• Peak aortic velocity > 4 m/s (> 64 mm Hg) • Mean gradient > 40 mm Hg the aortic valve opens more, the est. AVA increases and the gradient doesn' t change much. New consideration Paradoxical low gradient, severe aortic stenosis with normal LV ejection fraction. Comparison of low flow, normal and depressed LVEF We've all been in this situation. our patient appears to have a very tight, calcified aortic valve which visually appears to be moderate to severe aortic stenosis. As we scan through our protocol, we obtain a peak aortic valve velocity of 3.3 m/s and mean pressure gradient (PG) of 23.6 mmHg The Doppler Velocity Index (DVI) is useful for assessing aortic prosthetic valve function as well as screening for valve obstruction. It is calculated as the ratio of the subvalvular velocity obtained by PW Doppler and the maximum velocity obtained by CW Doppler across the prosthetic valve. This peak velocity ratio is dimensionless and does not. Valves: Other than Aortic Valve ,the remaining valves are normal. Aortic valve is noted as sclerotic with Normal leaflet mobility Chambers Left &right . Atriums are normal sized. Left ventricle normal size Right ventricle normal sized. TAPSE-17 mm, normal RV function Great Arteries: AORTA. :Normal sized,Normal arch Doppler data E/A- 0.8/1.1 Percutaneous Bioprostheses. Percutaneous aortic valve implantation is emerging as an alternative to standard aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis considered to be at high or prohibitive operative risk (Figure 1G and 1H). 1-5 The valves are usually implanted using a percutaneous transfemoral approach. 4,5 To reduce the problems of vascular access and.

Aortic valve stenosis: evaluation and management of

Aortic enlargement and impaired bioelasticity are of interest in several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases as they can lead to cardiovascular complications. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is increasingly accepted as a noninvasive tool in cardiovascular evaluation. Assessment of aortic anatomy and bioelasticity, namely aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV), by CMR is. The peak aortic valve velocity (V A) is determined at the tips of the aortic valve cusps. The slice location is the same as for planimetry (described above). The single pixel with the highest reliable velocity is used, and pixels with excessive noise must be excluded (F3) Velocity and pressure distributions in the aortic valve By B. J. BELLHOUSE Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University (Received 12 February 1969) The distribution of pressure in normal and stenosed aortic valves is investigated experimentally with a rigid-walled model placed in a pulsatile water-tunnel, an

Normal Blood Flow Patterns - E-Echocardiograph

In normal individuals, there is a very slight (1-2 mmHg) pressure difference between the left ventricle and aorta that helps drive the blood across the aortic valve. Normal aortic valve blood flow is laminar (Fig. 3.11) and most of the red cells in the aortic root during systole are moving at approximately the same speed The aortic valve is a semilunar valve with three leaflets, which lies at the junction of left ventricle and aorta. It allows unidirectional blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and the rest of the body. Because of the highly complex and sophisticated cellular and molecular functions, the thin valve leaflet can withstand extreme mechanical and hemodynamic forces with every cardiac. Gradient = 4(velocity)² mm Hg. Normal Aortic Valve. A normal aortic valve has no gradient, and; Aortic valve surface area is of 2.5 to 3.5 cms 2; Mild Aortic Stenosis. Mean pressure gradient across the valve is less than 25 mm Hg, or; Valve surface area is between 1.5 and 2.5 cms 2, or; Jet velocity less than 3.0 m per second; Moderate Aortic. Transvalvular gradients determined using Doppler echocardiography in general correlate well with invasive measures among patients with native aortic stenosis (AS) (1, 2, 3) and after aortic valve replacement (AVR) ().The accuracy, noninvasive nature, broad availability, and absence of exposure to ionizing radiation have established echocardiography/Doppler as the standard for the clinical.

Aortic Stenosis a Tight Aortic Valve - A Comprehensive

Normal measurements of aortic valve protheses - Echopedi

  1. TVI (or VTI) is a hemo-dynamic echo parameter measured from Doppler spectrum across the valves ,usually in the outflow.This parameter is used to calculate cardiac output .VTI times the cross sectional area gives the stroke volume. Time velocity Integral Summary *VTI is a Doppler parameter described in cm , it can be referred t
  2. The aortic valve area (AVA) is estimated from TTE measurements with the continuity equation: where LVOT area is the area of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) calculated from a measured LVOT diameter with the assumption that the LVOT is circular (LVOT area = πr 2) and VTI is the velocity-time integral, measured from Doppler tracings.
  3. 2.1. Normal Valve Hemodynamics. The aortic valve opens during systole when the ventricle is contracting and then closes during diastole as the ventricle relaxes (Figure 1).In healthy individuals, blood flows through the aortic valve accelerating to a peak value of 1.35 ± 0.35 m/s [].The valve closes near the end of the deceleration phase of systole with very little reverse flow through the valve
  4. Normal Values for Implanted Aortic Valves . Normal Values for Implanted Mitral Valves . Basic Principles By their design, almost all replacement valves are obstructive compared with normal native valves the valve, to the velocity through the valve
  5. Severe AS is usually defined as mean gradient >40 mmHg, aortic valve area (AVA) <1 cm 2 and peak aortic jet velocity >4.0 m/s . However, discrepancies are frequently observed between the mean gradient and the valve area in a single patient ( 3 )
  6. Systolic coronary flow velocities and Smax/Srest ratio (peak sys- Discussion tolic flow velocity/systolic flow velocity at rest) before and after aortic In accordance with earlier studies, we have demonstrat- valve replacement (AVR). ed that CFR is decreased in patients with aortic stenosis Tabelle 6
  7. Whereas a normal aortic valve has a peak jet velocity of 0.9 to 1.8 m/sec, a peak pressure gradient of less than 25 mm Hg, and a valve orifice area of 2.0 to 3.5 cm 2, a severely stenotic valve will have a peak velocity of more than 4.0 m/sec, a peak gradient of more than 64 mm Hg, and a valve area of less than 0.5 cm 2.

With pulsed Doppler, a single peak flow velocity waveform for the aortic and pulmonary valves is demonstrated. The peak systolic velocity increases from 50 to 110 cm/s during the second half of pregnancy and is higher across the aortic than the pulmonary valve Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction describes a state in which the egress of blood from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation is impeded as it traverses the anatomic LVOT to the aortic arch. Echocardiography, particularly with the use of spectral Doppler, may be used to determine the etiology, associated anomalies, and assess the effect of the necessarily increased. Aortic sclerosis About 25% of all adults over age 65 yrs have aortic valve sclerosis. Thickened calcified cusps with preserved mobility. No significant obstruction to LV outflow. Typically associated with peak doppler velocity of < 2.5 m/sec. In Cardiovascular Health Study ,for group of patients 65 yrs,the aortic valve was normal in 70% of.

Severe aortic insufficiency can be diagnosed by continuous- wave Doppler by all the following criteria Except. A. Maximum velocity > 3 m/ sec. B. A pressure half- time of <or = 200 msec. C. Aortic insufficiency deceleration slope > or = 3 m/sec^2 (steep slope) D. Darkened spectrum of the regurgitant jet. A In the normal valve, convectively fed vortices are formed in the aortic sinuses; the vortices aid cusp positioning and the prevention of jet formation during valve closure. Aortic valve stenosis is shown to prevent the generation of vortices, causing the formation of a turbulent jet, with reduction of the pressure difference between the inlets. The aortic velocity time integral (VTI) is an echocardiographic tool used to estimate cardiac output (CO) by multiplying it with the aortic valve (AV) area and heart rate (HR). Inaccurate measurement of AV diameter will lead to squared miscalculation of CO. The aortic VTI itself can serve as a left-ventricular (LV) output parameter. The normal range of aortic VTI in adulthood is relatively.

Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the normal human

  1. Aortic valve regurgitation, normal values Peak velocity (m/s) 1,8-2,5: Steven et al. (2017): Recommendations on the Echocardiographic Assessment of Aortic Valve Stenosis. A Focused Update from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of.
  2. Patients with very severeaortic stenosis (aortic valve area of 0.6 cm2 or less or an aortic jet velocity of 5 m per second or more), a more rapid increase in aortic jet velocity over time (0.3 m.
  3. That flow velocity can be put in an equation to get an estimate of blockage of a valve. In real life, a normal valve has no pressure gradient across it (so zero), but by echo even a normal aortic valve has a velocity that converts to an instantaneous gradient of 5 to 10 mmHg. So when your doctor says the number is 12 that is nothing major
  4. Aortic dimensions LVEF LV hypertrophy LA size RV size and function TR PAP Other valve disease BP recorded BSA recorded Possible TOE indications Max velocity, mean gradient,AVA (report window where maximum velocity obtained).When AV parameters are discordant see appendix
Evaluation of Prosthetic Valves - Echocardiography in

A peak Doppler velocity of 4.5 meters per second or more and mean gradient by Doppler of 50 mm Hg or more has a high specificity (over ninety percent) for severe aortic stenosis with catheterization derived aortic valve area of 0.75 sq cm or less [1] The normal aorta should have a triphasic waveform. A heel toe movement to ensure an angle <60degrees is used for accuracy in any velocity measurements. Normal Transverse B Mode Aorta. AP and Transverse Diameter should be < 3cm. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm distance to the renal arteries Critical aortic stenosis occurs when the valve area is < 0.7 cm2, at which point the transvalvular gradient will be 50 mm Hg at rest (ie with a normal cardiac output) - at 0.7 cm2/50 mm Hg, patients cannot appreciably increase their cardiac output

4 Most Common Errors In Evaluating Aortic Valve Velocity

When the aortic valve isn't working properly, it can interfere with blood flow and force the heart to work harder to send blood to the rest of your body. Aortic valve repair or aortic valve replacement can treat aortic valve disease and help restore normal blood flow, reduce symptoms, prolong life and help preserve the function of your heart. echocardiographic study is entirely normal. The aim of the Education Committee is to publish a series of appendices to cover Aortic Valve (Nyquist limit 50-60 cm/s) Vena contracta width: narrowest portion of colour flow at the level of the aortic valve in the LVOT immediately Measure: peak velocity and slope on flat part of spectral. Bahlmann F, Wellek S, Reinhardt I, Krummenauer F, Merz E, Welter C: Reference values of fetal aortic flow velocity waveforms and associated intra-observer reliability in normal pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001, 17: 42-49. 10.1046/j.1469-0705.2001.00306.x. CAS Article PubMed Google Scholar 4 blood vessel narrowing and near stenotic or regurgitant heart valves. Evenwithin the normal heart and blood vessels, various blood flow velocity profiles are seen as vessels curve around valve orifices. Normal blood flow through the heart, however, is mostly laminar or streamlined, but exhibits turbulence or disorganized flow in th Surgery for Asymptomatic Aortic Valve Stenosis * Surgery is not traditionally considered for the asymptomatic patient, regardless the degree of stenosis, because the risk of sudden death is considered to be low (estimated at<1%/year), and the risk of the AVR may exceed the potential benefit of surgery.; Severe AS need to be followed carefully for the development of symptoms or rapidly.

Assessment of pulmonary artery pressure by

In a normal aortic valve there are three leaflets, and because of this it is called trileaflet. During life the size of the aorta increases. The normal expansion rate is about 1-2 mm/year. 155 views Answered Jul 18, 2019. Thank. 1 than In adult individuals with normal aortic valves, the valve area is 3.0 to 4.0 cm 2. As aortic stenosis develops, minimal valve gradient is present until the orifice area becomes less than half of normal. The pressure gradient across a stenotic valve is directly related to the valve orifice area and the transvalvular flow [ 1 ] The enlarged valve annulus can then accept a more normal size prosthetic aortic valve or pulmonary valve autotransplant. A child with valvar aortic stenosis and a hypoplastic valve ring might require a Ross-Konno procedure, which is a combination of both the Ross procedure plus a Konno procedure Aortic stenosis is a narrowing of the aortic valve opening. Aortic stenosis restricts the blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and may also affect the pressure in the left atrium. Although some people have aortic stenosis because of a congenital heart defect called a bicuspid aortic valve, this condition more commonly develops during. Although aortic valve replacement is a common operation, younger patients have a higher than expected risk of mortality (death) 10 years after a mechanical or a tissue (bioprosthetic) valve replacement compared to what would be expected in the general population. 1 Data suggests that at 10 years after surgery, 1 in 5 patients who undergoes a mechanical aortic valve replacement at 50 years of. Aortic valve area <1 cm2 is criteria for stenosis unless completely normal cardiovascular testing; Criteria 1: Severe Aortic Stenosis (see classification above) and. Aortic jet velocity: >4 m/sec; Mean gradient: >40 mmHg; Aortic valve area: <1 cm2; Criteria 2: One of criteria below. Symptomatic Aortic Stenosi