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Adenoid hypertrophy in adults Radiology

Adenoid Hypertrophy in Adults: A case Serie

The common causes of adenoid hypertrophy in adults are chronic infection and allergy. Pollution and smoking are also important predisposing factors. Sometimes it is also associated with sinonasal malignancy, lymphoma and HIV infection. Study shows that 21 % of adult nasal obstruction is due to adenoid hypertrophy Nasopharyngeal adenoid hypertrophy (NAH) is a typical benign lesion. Due to involution, nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue usually is not found in adults beyond the 30th to 40th year of life. However, occasionally NAH has been recognized after the 50th or 60th year Dr B Gulhane and Dr Mohammed Wahba et al. Adenoidal hypertrophy or enlargement in children is common and due to an increase in the size of the adenoids. For adenoidal enlargement in adults, which is much rarer and usually pathological, please see the separate article, adenoidal hypertrophy (adults)

Adenoid hypertrophy in adults children. In contrast, adenoids removed from adults showed intense chronic inflammatory cell infiltration and secondary changes such as squamous metaplasia in the surface epithelium and fibrosis (Fig. 2). Discussion Obstructive AH is usually associated with childhood. Less has been published on th In NBI endoscopy, observation of an LC on the epithelial surface of the nasopharyngeal mucosa is a highly accurate predictor of the presence of adenoid hypertrophy Adenoid enlargement is uncommon in adults. We studied the varied presentation of adenoid hypertrophy in two adults. A 45 year old male who presented with nasal obstruction and snoring, and a 35 year old male who presented with non resolving chronic otitis media Adenoids enlarge during early childhood and reach a maximum size in children aged 3 to 7 years after which they usually undergo appreciable atrophy (2, 3). Nevertheless, adenoids that are enlarged because of benign lymphoid hyperplasia may persist or recur in adulthood because of several factors, including irritants and infections (4 - 6) There is good correlation between direct visualization of the adenoids and the lateral neck radiograph is assessing size If the nasopharyngeal stripe of air is half the size of the soft palate, significant obstruction occurs. If no adenoidal tissue after 6 month

MRI of nasopharyngeal adenoid hypertroph

Adenoid hypertrophy in a child, X-ray - Stock Image - C013

Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is described as the non-physiological enlargement of the nasopharyngeal tonsils which may lead to nasal obstruction. There are several previously suggested histopathological mechanisms for adult AH, among them chronic nasal inflammation is the most popular one (1) Adenoids are small tissues located at the back of the throat. They are similar to the tonsils, and located right above them. Both adenoids and tonsils are part of the immune system. Adenoids are. Pharyngeal tonsils, or adenoids, are well known, and the frequency of their pathologic importance in children is recognized even among laymen. Perhaps as a result of this, physicians seem to have a rather blasé attitude toward them. This may induce the opinion that they are peculiarly a phenomenon.. Although adenoid hypertrophy most commonly occurs in children, adults with increased exposure to pollution or smoking may also be predisposed to adenoid enlargement due to irritation. In some instances, adenoid hypertrophy may also be associated with sinus tumors, lymphomas, and HIV infection Adenoid hypertrophy (enlarged adenoids) is the unusual growth (hypertrophy) of the adenoid (pharyngeal tonsil) first described in 1868 by the Danish physician Wilhelm Meyer (1824-1895) in Copenhagen. He described a long term adenoid hypertrophy that will cause an obstruction of the nasal airways

ADENOID HYPERTROPHY AND ADENOTONSILLECTOMY The term adenotonsillar hypertrophy refers to the unusual growth of the adenoids and palatine tonsils (3) . It was first described by Danish physician Wilhelm Meyer in Copenhagen in 1868 (4). He explained that chronic adenoid hypertrophy results in nasal airway obstruction, and tha The prevalence of adenoid hypertrophy in adults in a rural area of Turkey. Kapusuz Z(1), Ozkırış M, Okur A, Saydam L. Author information: (1)Department of Otolaryngology, Medical Faculty of Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of adenoid hypertrophy in adults in Yozgat city of Turkey In such children, adenoid hypertrophy is often suspected. There are numerous ways to determine adenoid size, including palpation, mirror examination, endoscopic examination, lateral neck roentgenogram (X-ray), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and acoustic rhinometry. Pediatric patient cooperation limits the utilization of palpation and mirror. Adenoidal hypertrophy is common in the 6-month to 6-year age group. Clinical examination and flexible nasopharyngoscopy can be performed to evaluate the adenoidal size. Nasal endoscopy may be complementary to lateral radiograph of the neck in evaluation of the adenoids

CT scan: coronal and axial views showing enlarged adenoids

Adenoidal hypertrophy (children) Radiology Reference

Adenoid hypertrophy is an obstructive condition due to enlarged adenoids. This can occur with or without an acute or chronic infection of the adenoids. This condition is more common in children than in adults; the adenoids naturally atrophy and regress during adolescence. In children, the prevalence has been estimated at 34.5 percent Introduction. Nasopharyngeal adenoid hypertrophy (NAH) is a typical benign lesion in childhood and may often be detected incidentally on imaging. 1 -3 Because of involution, nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue usually is not found in adults beyond the 30th to 40th year of life. 2,3 However, occasionally NAH has been recognized after the 50th or 60th year. 3,4 At this age, a differentiation. In fact it may be impossible to differentiate between hypertrophic adenoids and nasopharyngeal lymphoma on imaging alone, and a biopsy is necessary for making a definitive diagnosis. Although adenoid hypertrophy is a benign lesion, it shows low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in both children and adults

Adenoid Hypertrophy : X-ray. Tuesday, October 04, 2016 head and neck radiology. The size of the adenoids is less of a consideration than the degree to which they do or do not impinge on the nasopharyngeal airway. If the nasopharyngeal stripe of air is half the size of the soft palate, significant obstruction occurs Not due to adenoid hypertrophy 6538 99.72 Due to Adenoid hypertrophy 12 0.18 Total 6550 100 4. Discussion Although adenoidal tissue undergoes regression toward the adolescent period, it may represent the chief cause of nasal obstruction in adults [4], [6], [7]. Some adults have different sizes of adenoidal hypertrophy. This hypertrophy

Adenoid Hypertrophy in Adults: Clinical and Morphological

  1. Although adenoidal tissue undergoes regression toward the adolescent period, it may present as the chief cause of nasal obstruction in adults (Frenkiel, 1980), (Bennett, 1993), (Yüce, 2007). Some adults have different sizes of adenoidal hypertrophy. This hypertrophy is different with children's under the pathologic microscope
  2. The aim of this study is to know the etiopathology of adenoid hypertrophy in adults. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five cases of adult adenoid hypertrophy who underwent adenoidectomy were studied in our institution over a period of 5 years from 2008 to 2013. All the patients underwent diagnostic nasal endoscopy, and associated sinus and nasal.
  3. Adenoid enlargement is most commonly seen in children and can compromise the upper airway. Adenoid enlargement in adults is an uncommon but well-recognized entity. Enlargement of the adenoids is most commonly due to infection and, if so, may be associated with tonsillar enlargement (Fig. 1 ) [ 1 ]

Narrow‐band imaging for diagnosing adenoid hypertrophy in

  1. Medical Treatment for Rhinosinusitis Associated with Adenoidal Hypertrophy in Children: An Evaluation of Clinical Response and Changes on Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, Vol. 114, Issue. 8, p. 638
  2. IJARS, About International Journal of Anatomy Radiology and Surgery aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature
  3. e adenoid size, including palpation, mirror exa
  4. ObjectiveTo investigate the contributions of adenoid and tonsil size to childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the interactions between adenotonsillar hypertrophy, age, and obesity in children with OSA. MethodsIn total, 495 symptomatic patients were recruited. The patients were assigned to four groups according to age:toddler (age 1-3, n=42), preschool (age 3-6, n=164), school (age 6-12.
  5. Adenoid hypertrophy was identified in 164 (12.4%) of the patients with allergic disease and in 3 (3%) of the controls. Allergic children were divided into two groups, as children with and without AH, respectively. The groups did not differ statistically significantly by gender, age or familial history of atopic disease
  6. d

Adenoid Hypertrophy in Adults: An Underdiagnosed Entity

  1. imal, although normal adenoidal tissue may occasionally be seen in adults in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Adenoid tissues appear isodense to muscle on CT imaging (see Fig. 2-52D). On MRI, the adenoids are isointense to muscle on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense on T2-weighted.
  2. The patient had marked nasal speech. The pre-operative neck and chest computed tomography (CT) scan also showed signs of adenoid hypertrophy (bilateral and symmetrical tissue growth in the nasopharynx and both valleculae). In view of a potentially difficult airway, we decided to use the Airtraq (Prodol Meditec, Vizcaya, Spain) laryngoscope
  3. Other 80 Emerg Radiol (2016) 23:79-87 Fig. 2 Lateral neck radiograph shows enlarged tonsils (T) in a patient Fig. 1 Lateral neck radiograph shows enlarged adenoids (asterisk)and with tonsillitis tonsils (T) narrowing the airway bodies among adults are fish bones (9-45 %), other causes of adenoid enlargement are human immunodefi- bones (8.
  4. ed tissue obtained at adenoidectomy.
  5. BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) could be helpful for the differentiation of malignant and benign entities. Nasopharyngeal adenoid hypertrophy (NAH) is a typical benign lesion. DWI appearances of this lesion have not been reported previously. PURPOSE: To identify and to analyse DWI findings of NAH
  6. sore throat. stuffy nose. swollen glands in the neck. ear pain and other ear problems. When the nose is stuffy, breathing through it can be a challenge. Other symptoms of adenoiditis related to.

Association between adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio and right ventricular diastolic functions in children with adenoid hypertrophy causing upper airway obstruction. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Vol. 69, Issue. 9, p. 1169 The most common include adenoidal tissue, antrochoanal polyp (ACP), and juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Benign adenoidal hypertrophy is by far the most common mass in the nasopharynx in children . Adenoidal tissue consists of lymphoid tissue that can enlarge over time and lead to symptoms of nasal airway obstruction Tonsillar hypertrophy is particularly common in children, though it can also affect adults. Children commonly get enlarged tonsils, but the condition can affect adults too Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, confirmed by polysomnography, is reported to have an incidence of 1% to 3%. 59 - 61 The obstructive apnea is almost always associated with hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids. The tonsil and adenoid tissue, when large, fills the area of the oropharynx and nasopharynx, obstructing airflow 71 Tonsils and Adenoids 71.1 Anatomy 71.1.1 Waldeyer Ring • Lymphoid tissue encircling the pharynx • Consists of palatine tonsils (the tonsils), pharyngeal tonsils (the adenoids), lingual tonsils, and tubal tonsils • Constantly exposed to new antigens • Part of the MALT, which processes antigens and presents them to TH cells and B cells

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare form of cancer that most commonly develops in the salivary glands or other regions of the head and neck. ACC can occur in other parts of the body, such as the breast, skin, cervix in females, prostate gland in males, and various other areas. ACC tumors are characterized by a distinctive. Adenoid hypertrophy can lead to blockage of the eustachian tubes and OME with conductive hearing loss and/or recurrent infections. Speech delay can be a sign of hearing loss. In conjunction with large tonsils it can lead to upper airway resistance syndrome and OSA. Most people have a degree of OSA at some stage in their lives

Nasopharyngeal Mucosa and Adenoids: Appearance at MR

  1. Hypertrophy of the tonsils and the adenoids means this tissue is enlarged. Adenoid hypertrophy is common in children but rare in adults. The common causes of adenoid hypertrophy in adults are chronic infection and allergy. Pollution and smoking are also important factors that can contribute to tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy
  2. Hypertrophy: The most common problem associated with tonsil/adenoid hypertrophy is obstruction - specifically obstructive sleep apnea (see separate section on sleep apnea). Sometimes children will present with difficulty swallowing solid food and adults may present with halitosis or frequent debris on the tonsils (tonsiliths)
  3. Adenoid Disorders. Hypertrophy or inflammation of the adenoids is common among children. Symptoms include nasal obstruction, sleep disturbances, and middle ear effusions with hearing loss. Diagnosis is enhanced by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy. Treatment often includes intranasal corticosteroids, antibiotics, and, for significant nasal.
  4. the conventional use of radiology in children. In our study, the common findings of bleed, rhinosinusitis, adenoid hypertrophy were often overlooked in radiology. In earlier studies, a study on assessment of adenoid size-a comparison of lateral radiographic measurement , radiological assessment and nasal endoscopy ( Lertsburapa K
  5. Approximately 25 percent of adults are at risk for sleep apnea of some degree. Men are more commonly affected than women. Other risk factors include middle and older age, being overweight or obese, and having a small mouth and throat. The most common type of sleep apnea in adults is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
  6. Physiological adenoid hypertrophy is common in children between the ages of 6 and 10 years, following which atrophy sets in by the age of 16 years . In our study mean age of adenoid hypertrophy was 13 years old (Figure 6). CBCT can be an important tool in the initial assessment of suspected airway abnormalities
  7. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and serious cause of morbidity during childhood. It affects 1−3% of children of 2−8 years old. However, habitual snoring during sleep is a much more frequent occurrence and affects up to 27% of children, with a decrease in frequency in 9 to 14 year olds

LearningRadiology - Enlarged, Adenoids, Tonsil

Lymphoid tissues, such as adenoids (Ad) and tonsils (Tn), are suggested to undergo hypertrophy during childhood and involution in adulthood. Enlargement of Ad and Tn can cause transient. Snoring is a sound produced by vibration of the soft tissues of the upper airway during sleep and is indicative of increased upper airway resistance. Studies estimate that 45% of men and 30% of women snore on a regular basis. It can affect not only the snorer's sleep but also the sleep of a spouse or other family members nearby. In fact, snoring causes many couples to sleep in separate rooms.

Nonsurgical medical management or surgical debulking / removal may be indicated in cases of hyperplastic lingual tonsil contributing to sleep apnea (Clin Otolaryngol 2017;42:144) Nonsurgical management most often entails treating symptoms of acid reflux to prevent inflammation of the tonsil tissue (Clin Otolaryngol 2017;42:144) Surgical debulking or removal includes a number of different. Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint. While almost everyone has an occasional night of poor sleep, approximately 10 percent of adults have long-term or chronic insomnia. This information will review the symptoms, causes, diagnosis of insomnia, and the treatment for insomnia

In cases of severe or chronic adenoid infections or recurrent sinusitis due to adenoid hypertrophy, adenoidectomy is recommended. It is a relatively simple procedure and may not pose a health risk. Note: The removal of the adenoids is known as adenoidectomy, while the removal of the palatine tonsils is known as tonsillectomy (4) Studies also find that removal of the adenoids may help some children with chronic earaches accompanied by fluid in the middle ear (otitis media with effusion). In adults, the possibility of cancer or a tumor may be another reason for removing the tonsils and adenoids

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Recognizing the Radiographic

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare form of cancer that usually affects the salivary glands in the mouth and throat. It typically manifests as a painless tumor in the mouth that can eventually spread to the lungs or other parts of the body. As the tumor grows, it can cause numbness in the tongue or face muscles, a sore throat, fatigue, and weakness Nasal obstruction mainly caused by adenoid hypertrophy in children affects the craniofacial growth and development process, and the craniofacial deviations and/or differences reported in the children are very similar to those in the adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The authors aimed to look for relationships of the linear craniofacial dimensions in the children suffering.

Waldeyer's tonsillar ring (pharyngeal lymphoid ring, Waldeyer's lymphatic ring, or tonsillar ring) is a ringed arrangement of lymphoid organs in the pharynx.Waldeyer's ring surrounds the naso-and oropharynx, with some of its tonsillar tissue located above and some below the soft palate (and to the back of the mouth cavit Adenoid hypertrophy is normal in children aged 6 months to 5-6 years; absence of hypertrophy is abnormal at this age. Adenoid hypertrophy in adults is uncommon ; however, several studies report this pathology in patients as old as 52 years. This author has found adenoid hypertrophy confirmed by histopathologic examination in patients as old as. The adenoids are made up of lymph tissue and are located in the space above the soft roof of the mouth (nasopharynx) and cannot be seen by looking in your child's nose or throat. Adenoids also help to fight infections. Adenoids may cause problems if they become enlarged or infected. Adenoiditis is when the adenoids become inflamed from infection

Correlation between adenoidal nasopharyngeal ratio and

Example of a case a child with adenoid hypertrophy

Nasopharyngeal Mucosa and Adenoids: Appearance at MR Imagin

modalities like CT scans, adenoid hypertrophy is increasingly being diagnosed in adults. In our cases, adenoid hypertrophy was diagnosed with the help of nasal endoscopy and con fi rmed by CT scan. Although the exact cause of adenoid hypertrophy in adults is not known, but various aetiopathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed Results: Two patients out of 68 (2.9%) in the first (only adenoid hypertrophy) group and in one patient out of 38 (2.6%) in the second group had nasopharyngeal carcinoma. There was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: We found that asymmetric adenoid hypertrophy in adult patients seems an importan We aimed to investigate the validity of performed nasopharyngeal biopsies to diagnose suspected malignity in adult patients with adenoid hypertrophy whit/without synchronous otitis media with effusion in absence of other clinical symptoms and radiologic findings to arouse suspecting malignancy The pharyngeal tonsil, also called adenoid, is the upper extension of the lymphatic Waldeyer's Ring and is located on the upper posterior wall of the nasopharynx 1. It is found adjacently to the choanae and the auditory tube ostium. Adenoid hypertrophy plays an important role in recurrent otitis as well as in secreting otitis of the middle ear

Adenoid Hypertrophy and Endoscopic Adenoidectomy in Adults

1 Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave., Enlargement of the lingual tonsils has been described as a rare cause of significant obstructive sleep apnea in adults [20 Patients with Down syndrome may be predisposed to hypertrophy not only of the adenoid and palatine tonsils, but also of the. limited. Benign adenoidal hypertrophy, on the other hand is by far the most common cause of a mass of the posterior nasopharynx in children. In light of this fact, NPC is unlikely to be considered in the differ-ential diagnosis unless the radiologist is aware that NPC can occur in children and therefore deliberatel Clinicians have questioned the value of lateral soft tissue neck x-ray (LSTN) in assessing adenoid size. Elaborate cephalometric assays have been devised to measure degree of nasopharyngeal obstruction secondary to adenoid hypertrophy. This study prospectively studied 73 children, aged 11 months to 13 years, with clinical evidence of adenoid hypertrophy to assess how well a LSTN correlates.

ADENOIOD | DR

MRI of nasopharyngeal adenoid hypertrophy - Alexey Surov

Obstruction of the airway is a medical emergency. If it is not treated immediately, rapid and potentially life-threatening hypoxia develops. A 70-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and palatine tonsillectomy presented to our tertiary care hospital with dysphagia, odynophagia, muffled voice, and neck swelling of a one-week duration. She also complained of associated shortness of. Homeopathy. Homeopathy is an alternative medical practice developed by Dr.Samuel Fredrich Hahnemann in Germany in 1796. It is based on two theories: Like Cures Like: a disease can be cured by a substance that produces similar symptoms in a healthy body. Law of Minimum Dose: the lower the dose of the medication, the higher its effectiveness DOI: 10.1002/lary.21719 Corpus ID: 5135174. Narrow‐band imaging for diagnosing adenoid hypertrophy in adults: A simplified grading and histologic correlation @article{Wang2011NarrowbandIF, title={Narrow‐band imaging for diagnosing adenoid hypertrophy in adults: A simplified grading and histologic correlation}, author={Wen-Hung Wang and Yen-Chun Lin and H. Weng and K. Lee}, journal={The. Pioneer in Rad Blogging. First mover in Radiology & Web 2.0

Method of assessing adenoid enlargement on lateral neck

Asymmetric adenoid hypertrophy in a patient with

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid | Radiology Case

Enlarged Adenoids: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatmen

Conclusion: Adenoid hypertrophy is uncommon among adult individuals. It is significantly present in HIV infected adult individuals and should be ruled out as cause of nasal complaints. Adenoid is the condensation of lymphoid tissue at the posterosuperior wall of nasopharynx. Adenoids form a part of waldeyer's ring Read Craniofacial differences according to AHI scores of children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: cephalometric study in 39 patients, Pediatric Radiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips Burjeel Royal Hospital, Al Ain offers all round expertise ensuring the best in diagnostic, curative as well as preventive aspects of healthcare. Equipped with the best and the most advanced facilities in treatment, equipment and diagnosis, and with a team of renowned specialists and medical personnel at the helm, Burjeel Royal Hospital is setting a new standard in healthcare in Al Ai

ADENOIDS IN ADULTS: A CLINICAL STUDY JAMA Otolaryngology

The incidence of adenoid hypertrophy in the present study was 88.1% in mouth-breathers compared with 31% in nose-breathers. This difference was highly significant (P ≤ 0.01). The very high incidence of hypertrophied adenoids emphasizes the leading role of adenoids as a causative agent in mouth breathing J35.2 is a billable diagnosis code used to specify a medical diagnosis of hypertrophy of adenoids. The code J35.2 is valid during the fiscal year 2021 from October 01, 2020 through September 30, 2021 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions. The ICD-10-CM code J35.2 might also be used to specify conditions or terms like adenoid facies. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare form of adenocarcinoma, a type of cancer that begins in glandular tissues.It most commonly arises in the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. It can also occur in the breast, uterus, or other locations in the body. Symptoms depend on the tumor 's location. Salivary gland tumors may cause painless masses in the mouth or face Photo descriptions: A photo showing the inside of a patient's mouth with snoring complaints. It appears that the patient's uvula is quite long and in contact with the tongue root. Uvula may prolong and sag due to many reasons such as snore-induced vibratory trauma, smoking, alcohol use Adenoids, a mass of lymphatic tissue, similar to the (palatine) tonsils, that is attached to the back wall of the nasal pharynx (i.e., the upper part of the throat opening into the nasal cavity proper). An individual fold of such nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue is called an adenoid. The surfac

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon form of malignant neoplasm that arises within secretory glands, most commonly the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. Other sites of origin include the trachea, lacrimal gland, breast, skin, and vulva. This neoplasm is defined by its distinctive histologic appearance images, the cine MRI also clearly delineates adenoid re-growth or presence as well as lingual tonsillar hypertrophy as contributing factors to airway obstruction (Figure 1). Adenoid enlargement is reported if residual adenoid tissue is greater than 12 mm in thickness and if there is intermit-tent obstruction of the posterior nasopharynx seen on th According to the Friedman Tongue Position (FTP) Scoring System, the patient opens their mouth without removing the tongue and evaluates the soft palate, uvula and tonsils with the tongue.Depending on the appearance of the soft palate, the patient is given a score of 1-4. In the photographs, it is seen that the air vents are arranged from big to small Adenoid hypertrophy is a common childhood condition with unclear etiology and potentially severe consequences. The disease consists of increased adenoid tonsils and represents one of the most frequent surgical indications in this age period. Adenoid Hypertrophy (Adenoids Hypertrophy): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis Capital Region Physicians - ENT & Audiology offers comprehensive diagnoses and treatment of nasal and sinus disorders. Nasal conditions can stem from something temporary, like a cold, or something longer-lasting, like a deviated septum. Identifying the root cause allows our team to fix or remove it and lower the chance of future blockages